Technology LEF in an inputs to the pnr tool which defines the rules used in placement and routing.
A particle’s effective mass (often denoted m* is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution. …. Read more »
ESD events sometimes doesn’t immediately destroy the devices but leaves a “latent defect”. This can cause a device failure later. Latent defects are not caught while testing as the device… Read more »
ESD is something we come across in normal life, from lightning to the sudden shock experienced while touching certain materials. We however are interested more in the electronic kind, which… Read more »
Process variation is a naturally occuring variation in the attributes of transistors(length, widths, oxide thickness) when integrated circuits are fabricated. These variations can be: Chip-to-chip There can be parameter difference… Read more »