Physical Design

Physical Design Flow II:Placement

I. NetlistIn & Floorplan

After you have done floorplanning, i.e. created the core area, placed the macros, and decided the power network structure of your design, it is time to let the tool to do standard cell placement. The tool determines the location of each of the components (in digital design, standard cell instantiations) on the die. Various factors come into play, like the timing requirement of the system, the interconnect lengths and hence the connections between cells, power dissipation etc. The interconnect lengths depend on the placement solution used, and it is very important in determining the performance of the system as the geometries shrink.Placement also determines the routability of your design.

Placement does not just place the standard cells available in the synthesized netlist. It also optimizes the design, thereby removing any timing violations created due to the relative placement on die.

From a user perspective, these are the things important in placement.

  1. High fanout net synthesis
    High fanout nets other than clocks are synthesized at the placement stage. In logic synthesis, high fanout nets like reset, scan enable etc are not synthesized. You should verify that the SDC used for PnR should not have any set_ideal_network or set_dont_touch commands on these signals. Also, make sure you set an appropriate fanout limit for your library using the command set_max_fanout.

    e.g. set_max_fanout 20 [current_design]

    If a driver has too many loads, it will negatively affect the delay numbers and transitions values. After placement, look for any fanout violations in the timing report.

  2. Use Ideal clock
    You are going to synthesize your clock later in the design. So make sure you define the clocks as ideal. If you don’t, HFN synthesis will be done on the clock. Clock constraints like skew or clock buffers are not used, and effectively your clock tree is messed up. In IC Compiler, you can use the following command to make sure clock is not propagated.
    set_ideal_network [all_fanout -flat -clock_tree]
  3. Control Congestion
    Congestion needs to be analysed after placement and the routing results depend on how congested your design is. Routing congestion may be localised. Some of the things that you can do to make sure routing is hassle free are:

    • Macro-padding: Macro padding or placement halos around the macros are placement blockages around the edge of the macros. This makes sure that no standard cells are placed near the pin outs of the macros, thereby giving extra breathing space for the macro pin connections to standard cells.
    • Maximum Utilization constraint: Some tools let you specify maximum core utilization numbers for specific regions. If any region has routing congestion, utilization there can be reduced, thus freeing up more area for routing.
      set_congestion_options -max_util .6 -coordinate {837 114 1103 918}
    • Placement blockages: The utilization constraint is not a hard rule, and if you want to specifically avoid placement in certain areas, use placement blockages.
  4. Scan chain reordering
    In a less complex design, you don’t usually do scan reordering. However, sometimes it may become difficult to pass scan timing constraints once the placement is done. The scan flip flop placements may create lengthier routes if the consective flops in scan chain are placed far apart due to a functional requirement. In this case, the PnR tool can
    reconnect the scan chains, to make routing easier. A prerequisite for this option is a scan DEF for the tool to recognise the chains.
  5. TIE cells
    In your netlist, some unused inputs are tied to either VDD/VSS (or logic1/logic0). It is not recommended to connect a gate directly to the power network, so you can use TIEHI or TIELO cells if available in your library for the same. These are single pin cells which effectively ties the pin it connects high or low. After placement, dump out a netlist and serach for direct pin connections to the PG rails (other than power pins). There shouldn’t be any if you are using tie cells.

    In IC Compiler, use the following commands to connect tie cells.

    TIE cells insertion flows differ slightly between tools, so go through the help.

  6. Spare cells Read this article on spare cell placement.
  7. Timing
    Your clock is not propagated, hence you have a zero skew at this point. Your timing reports should look pretty good. Make sure fanout constraints are met.

After placement, verify that all cells are placed on rows without any overlaps. You might find the following commands useful depending on your design.
report_level_shifters -verbose

III. Clock Tree Synthesis
IV. Routing
V.Physical Verification



  1. sharan

    September 17, 2014 at 4:13 pm

    I had seen, virtual placement or floor planning(any of two) option in ICC. Where we check whether there is any congestion for routing signals are not?.
    This helps us to to again increase or adjust our core aspect ratio.
    Is this concept correct , please correct me

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      September 17, 2014 at 9:42 pm

      I think virtual placement is for rough macro placement. It may be useful. Personally I place macros manually, using flylines for reference. However, do try the tool placement for an initial location.

  2. ram

    January 18, 2015 at 10:08 am

    how do we define location of I/O pins in the design?

  3. ameer

    February 3, 2015 at 2:23 pm

    hey hi sini

    i’ve come across a typical problem.

    after doing the floorplanning,PG planning and placement of standard cells in the design. when performing a legality or check place command, i’ve seen violations such as macros are overlapped with the placment blockage. can you please give some info why did this scenario arise and how to resolve that.
    Note: the Legality problem is not due to standard cells but due to macros??

    revert back ASAP

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      February 4, 2015 at 8:16 am

      As long as the overlap is between a macro & placement blockage, and you have added the placement blockage to keep other blocks away from the macro, it is alright to ignore the overlap error.

  4. islam

    February 12, 2015 at 1:01 pm

    Thanks a lot for sharing the valuable information.
    It would be great if you added another article for power planning.

  5. Sarath Chandra

    April 9, 2015 at 7:52 am

    Hi Mam,
    What’s the difference between “create_placement” and “place_opt” commands?
    I couldn’t get any info on create_placement anywhere.So please suggest me any websites if possible.

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      April 9, 2015 at 8:37 am

      The best resource for tool commands are the websites for the tool vendor itself.

      create_placement does a coarse placement for helping with floorplanning, and place_opt is the actual placement command you will use.IC Compiler tool command reference should also have the information you seek.

  6. Gokulnath

    May 21, 2015 at 10:08 pm

    Hello Mam,

    will u please explain in detail about scan chain?
    How to create scan chain?
    When the scan chain will be created?

    • krishna

      February 5, 2016 at 10:31 am

      In Scan chains, we place a MUX in front of every sink, so that with the enable pin we can test the design with different techniques like MBIST,ATPG etc.
      Scan chain need to function with a low frequency, this frequency is different from that of the actual frequency of the design
      Scan chains would be created well before placement of the design .

  7. Koushik Mahanta

    June 11, 2015 at 3:03 pm


    I want to know:

    a) Is it necessary to fix all the timing violations after the ‘placement’ stage ?

    b) During ‘placement’, the tool might have already tried to meet timing using techniques like: High Fan-out synthesis,cell-sizing,cloning, logic re-structuring etc. If after placement, timing violations are still there, what techniques are to be used to fix timing violations after placement ?

    c) Could you list some useful commands (Synopsys IC Compiler) which are frequently used to fix timing after placement ?

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      June 12, 2015 at 5:49 pm

      A. Not necessarily. But it advisable to look at all timing reports after placement to see none are due to wrong constraints like huge input or output delay specifications.
      b. Wait till after cts to fix all if placement didn’t fix some. Hold violations make sense only after cts.

  8. ravi

    June 19, 2015 at 5:14 pm

    what are the techniques we have to fix the timing violations before the CTS?

  9. Milind Priyadarshi

    August 4, 2015 at 3:31 pm

    Hello mam,
    I want to know how the nomenclature method for MACROS ie SRAM cells.
    I have a large netlist file and i am unable to identify the MACRO/SRAM hierarchy as i am facing difficulties in identifying them.
    Actually i am designing a EDA tool for placing MACROS manually.

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      August 4, 2015 at 4:52 pm

      That’s a good initiative! I don’t know how to identify it from the netlist though. In various companies I have worked, I have seen very differing names used, typically depending on the memory generator software.

      If you are using a P&R tool, you can identify macros by the cell property. Again, I don’t think either EDI or ICC can differentiate between a custom macro cell and memory. Do explore though. I would like to be proved wrong.

      Have you thought about giving the memory cell master list as an option to the tool? It won’t be as automated, but still useful if the placement quality is good.

  10. nagasiva

    October 31, 2015 at 9:56 am

    hello mam,
    how to reduce timing violations after placement?

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      November 4, 2015 at 1:21 pm

      That is specific to your design. You need to analyse the reports to see why you are seeing the violation.

    • krishna

      February 5, 2016 at 10:26 am


      If the violation what u observe is to a certain limit, then u can reduce it once CTS has been done, because once clock gets propagated, the actual delay between clock sinks would be known and this will reduce the timing violations.

      First of all try to understand why you find timing issue once the design is placed?

  11. naresh

    November 12, 2015 at 11:23 am

    Hello mam,
    Generally we are adding ENDCAPs for to avoid drc violations, and cell characterization what is meant by cell characterization and well tie-off

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      November 12, 2015 at 6:37 pm

      1. End caps are for maintaining the well according to your process requirement. If you look at the endcaps after placements they just create an nwell/hwell ring around your digital. It is just an easier automated way of meeting DRC rather than drawing the ring by hand.

      2. Cell characterization refers to the determination of std cell values for use in digital flow. After measuring the values for various PVT corners, .lib cells are generated for use in digital design flow.

  12. gopi

    November 23, 2015 at 10:50 pm

    i get macro pin delay is 2.36 .how to minimize the delay?

  13. gopi

    November 25, 2015 at 9:26 pm

    how i have to reduce my transition time?

  14. gopi

    November 25, 2015 at 9:27 pm

    hello mam

    how i have to reduce transition time of particular standard cell

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      December 9, 2015 at 9:13 pm

      You can find the pin that is causing the transition violation for the net, and either upsize the driver(previous Y) or add a buffer.

  15. kumar

    December 18, 2015 at 11:07 pm

    Hello mam,
    why we do power plan before placement? what happen if we do powerplan after placement?

  16. sivakumar

    January 19, 2016 at 2:54 pm

    Hello mam,
    suppose if i am implementing one design both in 65nm and 40nm technology what type of issues we faced in 40nm compared to 65nm?

    • krishna

      February 3, 2016 at 2:53 pm

      We come across cross-talk violations mainly when we migrate to a lower technology node.
      The design need to be closed in multiple corners due to the effect of temperature inversion.
      corners= (cell delays+ wire delays)* modes = Analysis views
      cell delays= slow, fast,typical
      wire dealys= RCbest, RCworst, Cbest, Cworst, typical
      Here while taking wire delays into consideration we come across temperature inversion concept
      modes= functional mode, test mode etc.

  17. krishna

    January 28, 2016 at 5:54 pm


    what should be done if violations occur after placement?
    If at all it needs to be cleared , what are the techniques ?? can we move forward in the design if we have a large amount of negative slack after placement?

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      January 28, 2016 at 10:57 pm

      If there are numerous paths with huge negative slack, it will be difficult to meet once you have propagated clock and further routing.
      The tools have options to reduce the slack after placement, but the ideal way to proceed is by analysing the timing reports and understanding why there is negative slack. If this is due to some bottleneck that needs to be addressed by design.

  18. krishna

    January 29, 2016 at 11:01 am

    As you said, the cells which cause violation may be optimized in further design stages, how can a bottleneck analysis be advantageous at this stage?
    Kindly provide me an example.

    And one more thing, who will suggest that a margin of slack can be tolerated after placement to move forward in the design?

    • Sini

      January 31, 2016 at 9:50 pm

      You need to look at the violating paths and see if these are all caused due to same cells. Fixing one or two instances in the path can get you better results, instead of the tool trying to fix by brute force each and every path individually. Of course this may not be your issue. Every design is different.

      It’s your call as the layout designer. Your goal is to get the design timing clean, and if you find that the paths are something you can fix later on, you can move ahead.

  19. krishna

    February 1, 2016 at 9:50 am

    Can ecoChangeCell command be used after placement of the design?
    May I know the command utilized after placement to fix particular number of paths having violations are all caused due to same cells?

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      April 25, 2016 at 10:35 am

      Can ecoChangeCell command be used after placement of the design? — Yes. You might have to unfix and remove any dont_use if there.

      May I know the command utilized after placement to fix particular number of paths having violations are all caused due to same cells? — In PT there is a bottle neck analysis which might help you achieve it. Again, once you know the cells, manually fixing it might be less costly.

  20. Saketh

    February 12, 2016 at 10:26 am

    I want to place decaps around the particular cell at the placement stage itself. Is it possible using ICC?
    If possible, pls tell me how to do it.

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      February 12, 2016 at 12:51 pm

      I am not sure about ICC, but it should have automatic decap placement.

    • krishna

      February 17, 2016 at 4:31 pm

      How come u know whether that particular cell require a decap?
      As EM/IR will be verified once the placement is done, then u can know the actual drop.
      These cells are known as preplaced cells, which were placed prior to placement.

  21. Koushik

    February 29, 2016 at 12:10 pm

    Hi Sini,

    Could you give some basic information on–
    TCD cells ,ICOVL cells & Frame Cells ?

  22. Koushik

    April 11, 2016 at 12:23 pm

    Hi Sini,

    What is “Eagle check” in Physical Layout Verification ?

  23. Samarshekar

    April 20, 2016 at 12:04 pm

    How to get post palcement netlist in IC compiler

  24. shashi

    April 19, 2017 at 12:02 pm

    How placement is done across different corners and operating modes ?

    • mm

      Sini Mukundan

      April 19, 2017 at 9:52 pm

      When you enable multiple corners and modes while doing placement, the tool ensures that timing checks and timing optimizations are done for all modes/corners. You create an MCMM settings file and chose which modes to enable at various stages. The algorithm may differ for various EDA tools.

  25. Abhishek Patil

    December 10, 2017 at 12:25 pm

    Hello Sini,

    I have a query with std. Cell placement.
    Can we place a 10nm std. Cell in a 28nm environment?
    If their is a way to do so,please explain.

  26. mm

    Sini Mukundan

    December 11, 2017 at 9:06 am

  27. dayanand nalawade

    October 10, 2018 at 12:02 pm

    what is mean by magnet placement and command for magnet placement?

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